What is T.E.N.S?

T.E.N.S stands for Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerves Stimulation is a method of pain relief that involves the passage of low-voltage current to electrodes pasted on the skin.

The current is delivered through wires from a small battery-powered power unit. The frequency and intensity of this treatment depend on the specific condition and treatment goals. Accordingly, the electrode pads are placed in various sites on the body. Frequency, intensity, and site of application are believed to be pivotal to achieving optimal effects during and after stimulation.

The Method
The transcutaneous stimulation implies the use of a low-voltage current. After having applied the electrodes on the skin, each patient is invited to adapt the frequency and the intensity, according to his sensibility and preference. The most important, is to feel comfortable with the use of the T.E.N.S and to feel a real pain relief after the session. The adjustments such as the duration and frequency of each session can be very different from one to another people. In certain case, the analgesic effect can be felt immediately while it would need 30 minutes to 1 hour of treatment, to relief the patient’s pain. And for certain patients, the analgesic effect, can disappear as soon as the session is finished, while for others, the effects can last for hours or days after the treatment.

The Mechanism
We actually do not know exactly by which mechanism, electrical current can relief the pain. It currently exist two hypothesis to explain the analgesic effect:
1. The Gate’s theory:
According to the theory formulated by Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall, the electrical current contributes to block the painful information that goes to the brain. The electrical current acts like a gate that prevents the passage of the painful information, from the nerve to the medulla.
2. The analgesic’s endogenous:
The analgesic’s endogenous are painkiller substances that the body produces naturally when needed. According to this theory, the electrical current is the key element that permits the stimulation of the production of painkiller substances, which will relieve the pain.

How does T.E.N.S work?

T.E.N.S is simply a means of stimulating your body’s own natural defenses against pain. The unit produces a gentle stimulus through electrodes pad. This stimulus helps patients’ body to produce natural pain relievers called endorphins, and block the pain signal in its patch to the brain. T.E.N.S unit is connected by wires to sticky pad electrodes that are placed on the skin in the area of the pain. This allows a small low intensity electric charge to be passed across the area.

Two effects on pain relief:

– By selectively stimulating certain “non-pain” nerve fibers it sends signals to the brain that block other nerve signals carrying pain messages. Only the non-pain messages get through to the brain.

– T.E.N.S helps to stimulate the production of endorphins, which are natural pain reliever produced by the body. The device is usually used for 15-20 minutes, several times a day, controlled by the user. Pain relief may start very rapidly and last for days.

EasyMed T.E.N.S Pain Relief unit has been designed to be user-friendly and highly effective.

What’s the benefit of T.E.N.S?

T.E.N.S may be commonly used to provide relief from pain associated with the following:

Back pain: low back pain, upper back pain, sciatica, ARTHRITIC PAIN
Muscular pain: whiplash, frozen shoulder, Leg pain on hip, knee, ankle, Achilles tendon, heel and foot etc.
Sports injuries: Injuries on tennis elbow, golfers elbow, wrist pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, hand and fingers, phantom limb pain.
Abdominal pain: Menstrual Pain, irritable bowel syndrome
Head pain: classical migraine, pre-menstrual migraine, cluster headaches, stress, insomnia etc.
Neuralgic pain: Trigeminal neuralgias, post-operative pain, peripheral neuropathy with chemotherapy/diabetes, RHEUMATISM
Pregnancy and Childbirth pain: T.E.N.S treatments may also be used for some ante-natal problems, labour and delivery and post natal problems.

What are the advantages of T.E.N.S?
• Safe
• Portable
• Drug Free
• User friendly
• Ideal for home use
• Effective: many people feel immediate benefit
• Widely used and recommended by physiotherapists and doctors

T.E.N.S is proved to be able to reduce pain intensity. Many people feel immediate benefit from TENS. However a minority may only achieve benefit after repeated treatment sessions and over an extended period of time.

What is E.M.S?

E.M.S stands for Electrical Muscle Stimulation. E.M.S is predominately used by doctors and physical therapists to carry out muscle reeducation so as to prevent, or reduce, localized muscular hypotony or atrophy. Muscular atrophy is the decrease in size and wasting of muscle tissue. Muscles that lose their nerve supply can atrophy and simply waste away. It usually happens after surgeries or injuries. EMS has proven to be an effective means of preventing muscle atrophy.

Besides, E.M.S is also widely used on muscle exercise for perfect bodybuilding. Doctor and physician always consider EMS as a means of increasing blood flow to muscles, increasing range of motion, increasing muscle strength, as well as enhancing muscle endurance.
What’ more, EMS could contribute to pain management in regards to muscle related pain, such as muscle injured after sport, spastic muscle, sore muscles, or tight muscles.

While using the EMS, stimulation pulses are applied over the small area of your muscle by a couple of self-adhesive electrodes. This pulse stimulates the nerve to send a signal, which transfer a message to the muscles to contract or relax. Electrodes are placed over the small area of the muscle group to be exercised. When the stimulation is applied through the pads, the signal finds its way to these areas and provokes the muscle to contract. So the correct positioning of the pads is important.

E.M.S treatment could be called self-controlled muscle action. That means you can control the muscle. Because during the treatment, under the stimulation of the pulse, your brain would generate a signal and pass down to the spinal cord through the nerve with all the target muscle that causes them relax or contract.
By applying an outside electrical source, Electrical muscle stimulation unit activate the nerves to send symbols to the target muscle and cause them relax and contract. This is carried out by using self-adhesive electrodes, which could conduct electrical current through your skin to the nerves over the position area.

As studies have shown that EMS can not only make muscle stronger, but also help to build a perfect body shape, it is allowed to use regularly with weight training for the purpose of making muscles grow and increasing muscular endurance. As a result, body temperature and metabolism would increase.

How does E.M.S work?

When you perform a treatment regularly, through a couple of self-adhering electrodes, stimulation pulses are applied over the muscle, which would alternatively contract and relax, exactly as it happens during the physiological activity but with the advantage of avoiding the general sense of fatigue and increase muscle tune and endurance.

What’s the benefit of E.M.S?

E.M.S is not only used on muscle recovery, but also widely used by bodybuilders as a supplement to strength training.

– EMS could help to recover the muscular tone of a defined area of body, after a period of immobility.
– EMS unit is portable and easy to use. People just spend a little time per day to do the treatment and could regain the body shape.
– EMS could help you to improve the performance of specific muscles and extend the effectiveness of the physiological exercises.

Note: Benefit cannot be expected immediately. Most people would obtain the benefit after repeated treatment sessions and over an extended period of time.

What’s Urinary Incontinence?

Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of urine from the bladder. There are several types of incontinence:

– stress incontinence
– urge incontinence
– mixed incontinence
– overflow incontinence
– functional incontinence

Correct diagnosis of the type of incontinence is the first and most important step in designing an appropriate and effective treatment plan for incontinence.

Types of incontinence

Stress incontinence is the most common type of leakage encountered and the form of incontinence most associated with bladder leakage. Stress incontinence is loss of urine that occurs with any maneuver that increases intra abdominal pressure such as coughing, sneezing, lifting, laughing, intercourse, or changing position.

This usually occurs in women that have loss of support in the anterior vaginal wall leading to dropping of the bladder neck and urethra during increases in abdominal pressure. Most investigators feel that the descent of the bladder neck and urethra out of the normal intra abdominal position into the pelvis prevents closure of these structures during times when pressure is exerted on the bladder body. Some feel that the change in the angle of the bladder neck and urethra are responsible for the leakage. Stress incontinence can occur in men as well but is most often seen following transurethral prostate surgery or surgery for prostate cancer.

Urge incontinence

Leakage that occurs when there is a sudden urgent need to urinate and unable to be controlled is urge incontinence. This most often occurs in those people with spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, strokes, or diseases of the spinal cord.
This may occur also in male patients with an obstructing prostate or in women with loss of estrogen effects to the vaginal wall, bladder and urethra. Bladder muscle in many of these patients is overactive and usually provides very little warning to the patient that urination is eminent. Occasionally, in elderly patients, this bladder over activity is accompanied by decreased bladder contractions leaving these patients with incompletely emptied bladders. This syndrome is call detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility.

Mixed incontinence is a combination of stress and urge incontinence. Leakage occurs in connection with stress and may start with a strong and sudden urge.
Due to its double character, mixed incontinence can be a bit more difficult to diagnose and treat than other types of incontinence.

Symptoms:

– Women with mixed incontinence will leak urine with coughing and lifting but they will also have an urgent need to pee and will have trouble holding their urine until they can get to the bathroom.
Causes:
– There is a problem with both the urethral valve and the bladder storage system. In this case treatments for both problems may be necessary.

Overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder is inefficiently emptied leaving large amounts of urine in the bladder. As the volume increases the resistance provided by the bladder neck and urethra may be overcome and urine loss may occur.

This pattern is common in diabetics, male patients with enlarged prostates, urethral structures and in some spinal cord injured patients. In some cases this may be caused by medications taken for other conditions.

Functional incontinence is common in disabled or demented patients and is the most common type of incontinence in the nursing home setting. Patients with functional incontinence have normal orderly bladder activity but are unable to respond to this signal due to immobility or impaired mental functioning. As a consequence, they become incontinent unless they are prompted to void or asked void on a schedule.

Evaluation of the incontinent patient will focus on categorizing the type of incontinence being experienced. With this understanding, specific therapy can be recommended that is individualized to each patient.

Treatment of incontinence

The most common type of incontinence, stress incontinence is caused by weakened pelvic muscles. Pelvic muscles are not exercised regularly, which causes them to be naturally weak. Also, pelvic muscles can be weakened even more in the process of childbearing. During a vaginal childbirth, the child passes underneath the pelvic floor muscle. This weakens the pelvic muscle, and can lead to incontinence.

There are many treatments available for incontinence. One easy way to improve your continence is by doing pelvic floor muscle exercises. Your pelvic muscle stretches from your front pubic bone to your tailbone in the back. This muscle supports the bladder, large intestine and the uterus.

The exercise can strengthen the pelvic muscle to decrease incontinence. Incontinence is decreased because the exercise strengthens the pelvic muscle and the urethra, the tube from which the urine flows. Strengthening the urethra enables it to stay closed during stressful activities like aerobics or a tennis match.
If the exercises are done regularly, they will strengthen the pelvic muscles. To do them, you simply pretend that you are trying to stop the flow of urine you are voiding. You can actually stop your urine stream while you are urinating to get the hang of the exercise, but do not do it often because it will cause harm.

How is urinary incontinence diagnosed?

If you are having a problem with incontinence, the first step is to see your health care provider. She or he can refer you to an urologist, a doctor who specializes in treating the urinary tract. Some urologists further specialize in the female urinary tract. Gynecologists and obstetricians specialize in the female reproductive tract and childbirth. An urogynecologist focuses on urological problems in women. Family practitioners and internists treat patients for all kinds of complaints. Any of these doctors may be able to help you.

To diagnose the problem, your health care provider will first ask you about your symptoms and for a complete medical history. Your provider should ask you about your overall health, any problems you are having, medications you are taking, surgeries you have had, pregnancy history, and past illnesses. You will also be asked about your bladder habits: how often you empty your bladder, how and when you leak urine, or when you have accidents.
Your provider will then do a physical exam to look for signs of any medical conditions that can cause incontinence, such as tumors that block the urinary tract, impacted stool, and poor reflexes that may be nerve-related.

A test may be done to figure out how much your bladder can hold and how well your bladder muscles function. For this test, you will be asked to drink plenty of fluids and urinate into a measuring pan, after which your provider will measure any urine that remains in the bladder. Your provider may also recommend other tests, including:

• Stress test – You relax, and then cough hard as the provider watches for loss of urine.
• Urinalysis – You give a urine sample that is then tested for signs of infection or other causes of incontinence.
• Blood tests – You give a blood sample, which is sent to a laboratory to test for substances related to the causes of incontinence.
• Ultrasound – Sound waves are used to take a picture of the kidneys, bladder, and urethra, so any problems in these areas that could cause incontinence can be seen.
• Cystoscopy – A thin tube with a tiny camera is placed inside the urethra to view the inside of the urethra and bladder.
• Urodynamics – Pressure in the bladder and the flow of urine are measured using special techniques.

Contraindications to the perineal stimulation

Absolute contraindications:
• Pregnancy
• During the 6 weeks after child-birth
• Tumors
• Nephropathies
• Infections of the low urinary tract
• Postmicturition residue above 100 ml
• Vesico-uretral reflux

Relative contraindication:
• Unavailability of the patient
• Iper-sensibility to the electrical stimulation

Do you know urinary incontinence?

Urinary incontinence (UI) is a subject many of us find too embarrassing to talk about, myself pelvic muscle trainerleading many women to suffer in silence.

Even without the embarrassment factor, people tend to think it’s simply part of ageing and they have to put up with it. Men also suffer from incontinence, but in smaller numbers than women.

Urinary incontinence is when you can’t control your bladder, so you pass urine when you don’t want to.It happens when the pressure in your bladder is greater than the pressure in your urethra – the tube where urine comes out.

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